Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms Manifestation across Demographic Variables among Internally Displaced Persons in Jos, Nigeria


  • Gyang T. Rwang Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
  • Grace M. Kibanja School of Psychology, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
  • Kajumba M. Mayanja School of Psychology, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda


Avoidance, hypervigilance, intrusion, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Berom, Fulani herdsmen


Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects functioning in the three domains of cognitive, occupational, and social functioning. Such studies among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Nigeria are sparse. This study aims to assess the prevalence of PTSD as well as its manifestation in the three clusters of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance against demographic characteristics of age, gender, marital status, and educational level following clashes between Fulani herdsmen and Berom ethnic group in Jos, North central Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was used to systematically select 248 adult IDPs aged 18 years and above. The DSM-IV PTSD-8 inventory structured scale questionnaire was used to screen for PTSD symptoms. A cross tabulation analysis of PTSD and the demographic variables was performed. The result revealed that the prevalence of PTSD was 85.5% in all participants. There was a significant relationship between gender and intrusion (χ2= 21.787, P=0.0005), avoidance (χ2 =14.754, P=0.005), and hypervigilance (χ2 =8.229, P =0.0004).  Age, was also significant with intrusion (χ2=27.872, P=0.0005), and avoidance (χ2= 16.158, p=0.006); with no significant relationship between hypervigilance symptoms (χ2 =10.743, P =0.057). There was a significant relationship between marital status and intrusion (χ2=131.617, p=0.0005); avoidance (χ2=12.316, P=0.002); and intrusion (χ2=29.771, P=0.0005). There was a significant relationship between educational level and intrusion (χ2=23.617, P=0.0005); avoidance (χ2=12.825, P=0.005); and hypervigilance (χ2=14.914, P=0.002). It is essential that community based mental health care serivices and psychological support be provided to IDPs so as to get some relief and to prevent further complications associated with PTSD.


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How to Cite

Rwang, G. T., Kibanja, G. M., & Mayanja, K. M. (2022). Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms Manifestation across Demographic Variables among Internally Displaced Persons in Jos, Nigeria. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 12(1), 1–20. Retrieved from